Alfredo Arízaga, who served as the Minister of Finance during Ecuador’s dollarization, offers insights on a key topic discussed in former President Jamil Mahuad’s book, “Así dolarizamos Ecuador” (translated as “How We Dollarized Ecuador”). Some have questioned whether dollarization was simply a response to the economic crisis of 1999. Arízaga firmly believes it was […]

When leaders of the BRICS group of emerging economies – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – convene at a summit in Johannesburg this week, de-dollarization and the establishment of a common currency will be at the top of the agenda. Across Southeast Asia, Africa and the Middle East, there are now concerted efforts […]

Since the end of World War II, the United States dollar has reigned as the global currency par excellence. The 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement anchored all major currencies to the dollar, which in turn was tethered to gold. However, gold was not particularly convertible, and the ceremonial link between the dollar and gold served primarily […]

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