Generations of the Austrian School

Generations of the Austrian School

…whereas the ideas of Hume and Voltaire, of Adam Smith and Kant, produced the liberalism of the nineteenth century, those of Hegel and Comte, of Feuerbach and Marx, have produced the totalitarianism of the twentieth.

F.A. von Hayek (1899-1992)

Eminent Scholars in the Austrian Tradition | In following F.A. von Hayek’s famous suggestion (1962) we distinguish the school’s proponents in generations, starting with Carl Menger (1840-1921) as being the founder. While the first four generations have been educated predominately in Austria, or at least in continental Europe, the 5th and and the following generations of scholars were mostly raised outside Europe and thus, developed a slightly different approach, or at times focused their work differently.

2nd Generation: Eugen von Boehm-Bawerk (1851-1914); Friedrich von Wieser (1851-1926); Eugen von Philippovich (1858-1917); Johann von Komorzynski (1843-1912); Hermann Gross (1855-1911); Emil Sax (1845-1927); Robert Mayer (1855-1914); Richard von Schoeller (1871-1959); Viktor Mataja (1857-1933); Hermann von Schullern-Schrattenhofen (1861-1931); Robert Zuckerkandl (1856-1926); Richard Thurnwald (1869-1954); Franz Cuhel (1862-1914); Theodor von Inama-Sternegg (1867-1919); …

Since Ricardo’s Principles there has been no other book not even excepting Jevon’s brilliant but somewhat aphoristic and Walras’ unfortunately difficult work – which has had such a great influence on the development of economics as Menger’s Principles.

Knut Wicksell (1851-1926)

3rd Generation: Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973); Joseph A. Schumpeter (1883-1950); Leo Schoenfeldt-Illy (1888-1952); Ewald Schams (1889-1955); Richard von Strigl (1891-1942); Franz X. Weiss (1885-1936); Hans Mayer (1879-1955); Wilhelm Vleugels (1893-1942); Else Cronbach (1879-1913); Emil Perels (1880-1944); Richard Reisch (1866-1938); Alfred Amonn (1881-1956); Karl Pribram (1879-1950); Oskar Englaender; Karel English; Wolfgang Heller; …

4th Generation: Friedrich A. von Hayek (1899-1992) – Nobel Laureate; Gottfried von Haberler (1900-1995); Fritz Machlup (1902-1983); Martha Steffy Braun (1898-1992); Alfred Schuetz (1898-1956); Eric Voegelin (1899-1984); Herbert J. von Fuerth (1899-1994); Karol Schlesinger (1901-1938); Bruno Leoni (1906-1963); Oskar Morgenstern (1904-1979); Felix Kaufmann (1898-1951); Paul N. Rosenstein-Rodan (1902-1984); Lord Robbins (1901-1977); Lawrence Fertig (1898-1986); G.L.S. Shackle (1903-1992); Jacques Rueff (1896-1978); John van Sickle (1892-1976); Helene Lieser; Ilse Mintz [Schueller]; Gertrude Lovasy; Alexander Bilimovich; Marianne von Herzfeld; …

5th Generation: Arthur Seldon (1916-2005); Lord Harris of Highcross (1924-2006); Ludwig Gabillon-Bettelheim (1882-1943); Israel M. Kirzner (1930*); Ludwig M. Lachmann (1906-1990); Murray N. Rothbard (1926-1995); William Rappard (1883-1958); Ben Rogge (1920-1980); Louis Spadaro (1913-2008); Hans Sennholz (1922-2007); …

6th Generation: Vernon Smith, Nobel Laureate (USA); Jacques Garello (F); Pierre Garello (F); Christian Watrin (D); Dario Antiseri (I); Mario Rizzo (USA); Lorenzo Infantino (I); Edwin Dolan (USA); Raimondo Cubeddu (I); Kurt R. Leube (A/USA); Roger Garrison (USA); Jean-Pierre Centi (F); H.H. Hoppe (USA); Charles Baird (USA); Greg Christainsen (USA); Steven Littlechild (UK); Veselin Vukotic (MN); Lawrence White (USA); George Selgin (USA); Giancarlo Ibarguen (Guatemala); Joe Keckeissen (Guatemala); Sudha Shenoy (AUS); Lothar Wegehenkel (D); Heike Walterscheid (D); J.C. Cachanosky (AR); Enrico Colombatto (I); Hardy Bouillon (D); Vaclav Klaus (CZ); Michael Zoeller (D); Gerd Habermann (D); Peter J. Boettke (USA); Richard Ebeling (USA); Boudewijn Bouckaert (B); Karen Horn (D); Barbara Dluhosch (D); Giampaolo Garzarelli (I); Enzo Grillo (I); Martin Krause (AR); Vicky Curzon-Price (CH); …

A promising 7th and 8th generation of scholars who teach and publish in the tradition of the Austrian School is already active in a number of leading universities or is currently entering academia in Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Please be aware that this is not a complete list. For any suggestions please contact us.

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